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Define Climate: Factors that determine the Climate of India

Define Climate

Climate refers to the average weather conditions over a long period of time. It changes gradually and may be observed after 50 years or more.

Factors that determines the climate of India

There are two factors that determine the climate of India:

  1. Factors related to location and relief
    • Latitude
    • Himalayan mountains: it acts as an efficient climate divide to protect from cold Northern winds. It helps in trapping monsoon winds and forcing them to shed their moisture within the subcontinent.
    • Distribution of land and water: differential warming of land and sea generates air pressure zones that cause a reversal in directions of monsoon winds.
    • Distance from the sea: Coastal area – Equable climate; Areas in interior India – Extremes of climate.
    • Altitude: It is inversely proportional to temperature
    • Relief for physiography of India also affects the temperature, air pressure, directions, and speed of winds, and the amount and distribution of rainfall
  2. Factors related to air pressure and wind
    • Distribution of air pressure and winds
    • Upper air circulation controlling global weather and the inflow of different air masses and jet streams.
    • The inflow of Western cyclones, commonly known as disturbances during the winter season and tropical depressions during the Southwest monsoon period into India, creating ideal weather conditions favorable to rainfall.

What are the reasons for excessive cold in North India during Winter season?

The reasons for excessive cold in North India during Winter season are as follows:

  • North India being far away from the moderating effect of sea experience Continental climate.
  • Snowfall in the surrounding Himalayan range produces a cold wave condition.
  • Cold winds coming from the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan bring cold waves during the month of February.

Why winter monsoons do not cause rainfall as they move from land to sea?

Winter monsoon does not cause rainfall as they move from land to sea bacuse of following reasons:

  • They have little humidity,
  • Due to anti-cyclonic circulation on land.

More: Weather Vs. Climate

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