- Nationalism is a philosophy that believes in the idea of a Nation.
- The nation is a cultural entity that evolves out of country and State.
- A country is a geographical expression. A country comes into existence when a particular land is occupied by people. India has been a country for ages, even Vedic Aryans knew that India is a distant country.
- The state is a political Expression. A country becomes a state when it has a definite political boundary and government.
- Where the citizen of a state develops common Collective cultural Consciousness, the state gets transformed into a nation.
- Nationalism manifest in a form of a firm belief among the citizens that they all are part of one larger family as they share common history and Heritage. The citizen of a Nation reacts positively to the Pleasure and Pain of each other.
- The idea of the Indian Nation started emerging during the 1820s in its early form. Initially, Indian Nationalism manifests itself in the cultural arena. During the 1860s it has assumed a political forum.
Main factors responsible for the growth of Indian Nationalism
- Negative impact of British rule like the despotic regime, discriminatory policies, racist outlook and etc.
- The positive impact of British rule
- Socio-religious reforms movement increases the level of awakening among the people
- Contemporary International Developments like the American and French Revolution inspired Indian Nationalists.
- The emergence of Middle class
- New Historical Researches highlighted glorious elements of India’s past which instilled a sense of pride among Indians. This pride transformed into the spirit of Nationalism
- Economic exploitations of Indian Peasants, Merchants handicraft industries and etc.
- Reactionary policies of Lord Lytton like Vernacular Press Act and etc.